Measuring the Environmental Impact of “New Normal”

How Hybrid Working saved nearly 2 tonnes of CO2e per person

The latest international research by Px3 CEO Justin Sutton-Parker examined the detailed travel and work patterns of one international technology company, analysing the responses from 815 employees across 24 countries.

It found that that remote working had reduced commuting emissions by 43% in 2019.  In 2020 as the pandemic response was put in place this reduction rose to 97% compared with previous levels. 

Calculating the impact over the two years in the study, the research found that these measures had generated a global greenhouse gas abatement of 1.9 tonnes of CO2e per employee. 

Highlighting the role that IT has to play in enabling emissions reduction, the study noted that the subject company had invested in a Citrix digital workspace solution with zero trust security and threat analytics capabilities.  This “virtual desktop” enabled desktops and applications to be securely accessed on any device from any location.

As such, in 2019, the approach enabled 72% of global employees to work remotely, although only 13% did so five days per week whilst 28% chose to work from the office full time.  Overall the flexible working arrangement was calculated to have resulted in a reduction of 789,331 kgCO2e in scope 3 commuting GHG emissions in 2019.

With the imposition of travel restrictions in 2020 all employees were instructed to work from home for 9 months of the year, leading to a further 75% reduction in commuting emissions.  

The paper also highlighted significant regional differences in concern about the environment.  Overall employees collectively noted a ‘7.5’ score when asked, ‘If 10 is the highest importance, how important to you is reducing your carbon footprint?’, but this was highest in Asia Pacific registering a score of 8.7. In addition the study identified significant differences between regions in terms of both emissions and abatement, as shown below.

The study, from an established authority on sustainable IT and published as part of the 11th International Conference on Sustainable Energy Information Technology 2021, has important implications for sustainability and carbon-zero strategies, highlighting the positive impact that flexible working has already had on the greenhouse gas emissions and proposing some simple changes to build on the momentum.

Overall the findings indicate remote working has now been proved to be feasible for a much wider audience through the enforced business continuity in 2020, and identifies some key factors which must be examined to ensure commuter emissions do not revert or exceed 2019 values.

The focus moving into 2021 as commuting restrictions lift must be upon recognising that IT enabled remote working does support sustainable practices and GHG abatement. As such, the ‘new normal’ should include both an increase on pre COVID-19 home working instances coupled with an adoption of more sustainable transport modes where feasible. These modes should include the natural transition to electric vehicles plus increases in public transport utilisation and zero carbon activities such as cycling.

The results indicate that increasing the average number of remote working days per week and promoting an incremental shift to sustainable transport example can increase the ability for IT to abate GHG emissions by a further 20% to 60%, even in a ‘normal’ year.

Specifically organisations are encouraged to:

  • leverage the benefits of work life balance delivered by remote working,
  • raise awareness of the environmental impact of commuting
  • encourage the adoption of zero carbon transportation for commuting

The conclusion of the research is that whilst employees will begin to return to the office in greater numbers, future abatement of 60% is achievable in the ‘new normal’ when supported by investment in enabling IT solutions.

The published research is available here: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877050921014320

(Photo by JÉSHOOTS from Pexels)

About the Report Author

CEO & Research Director: Justin Sutton-Parker, MBA Sustainability & Leadership  

Justin Sutton-Parker is an information technology sustainability professional with over 25 years of experience. Nearing completion of a Computer & Urban Science PhD with the University of Warwick, Justin specialises in the impact of IT on global greenhouse gas emissions, highlighting the role IT can play in slowing global warming and tackling climate change.

Justin is co-founder, CEO and Director of research for Px3. He is also the author of multiple pieces of published research and the sustainable information technology columnist for the UK’s leading sustainable and ethical news, products and lifestyle magazine and Guardian supplement “My Green Pod”.

A regular international sustainability speaker, published researcher, consultant and presenter, Justin set out a personal life goal and aim for Px3 to: ‘Remove the greenhouse gas equivalent of 100,000 cars from the atmosphere by 2050 through the diffusion of sustainable IT.’

Email: Justin@px3.org.uk LinkedIn:  Justin Sutton-Parker

Is Flexible Working Bad or Good for the Planet, People and Productivity?

There’s something of a debate currently around working from home vs returning to “normal” ways of working, partly sparked by a recent BBC report https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-57339105 predicting a return to a five day week in the office.  In particular, can either the office or the home be held up as the ideal place to work from the perspective of the environment, wellbeing and productivity?  This article will try to take a balanced look at some of the issues and make some suggestions about how to approach the issue.

Let’s start with some context.  Pre-pandemic there were lots of organisations allowing people to work flexibly.  Some of which was allowing staff some days working away from the office, much of it was having about less rigid working hours and then there were some rare conversations about the possibility of measuring performance based on outcomes or added value rather than hours worked. 

Equally there were more traditional organisations that viewed attendance at a particular location between fixed hours as mandatory unless otherwise expressly authorised.  We can term these positions as being “liberal” and “conservative” workplace attitudes with applying any political connotations.

The overall trend, however, was increasingly liberal.  A new generation entering the workforce changed the demographic,  mobile devices proliferated, connectivity improved and flexible working technology generally became more widely adopted.  The pace of change was still relatively was slow until the pandemic struck and suddenly (almost) everyone was a remote worker.  Laptops were in short supply, Zoom became the most used verb in the business lexicon and people actually started using Teams in something like the way it was designed to work.

As vaccination passes the 50% mark for second “jabs” in the UK thoughts are increasingly turning to whether we continue as we are, return to a daily conservative commute or embrace new ways of working.  So let’s take a look at this using the classic Px3 lines of analysis: Planet, People and Productivity.

Planet

The environmental impacts of commuting are well documented, not just in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions but also air quality and pollution.  Pre-pandemic nearly 70% of UK commuting was by car according to Dept of Transport statistics (https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/945829/tsgb-2020.pdf), with an average round trip of an hour.  That’s a huge environmental burden, even with the slow rise in take up of electric vehicles.

On the counter-argument, only 27% of those commuting into London did so by car, demonstrating that if the costs are prohibitive and infrastructure supportive, behaviour will change.  There is also unease about the environmental impacts of large numbers working from home.  Large office spaces are designed and managed to be extremely energy efficient, whereas our individual homes are typically less so.

These objections don’t really stand up to scrutiny, however.  The prospect of significantly reducing the more than 120 billion vehicle miles used each year for commuting and travel for work with public transport is at best unlikely.  The process of replacing all those internal combustion engines with electric (or hydrogen) ones is also too slow to meet our objectives.

As to minimising the emissions from our properties, we already need to address the heating and insulation issues.  We will not reduce overall emissions if we heat our properties, drive to work (leaving them to cool down), consume energy at work, drive home and then re-heat back to a comfortable level.  These are not “either / or” discussions – we need sustainable solutions for the home and workplace.

People

There is also a visible divide with regards to how people feel about a the return to the workplace.  For some this is an age and hierarchy issue – an established generation of leaders and managers inflicting rigid and out-dated working practices on the young.

It’s an emotional topic too, with many stating that the “genie is out of the bottle” and that having had a taste of freedom they would actually rather resign than go back to a standard 9-5 on-premises working day https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-06-01/return-to-office-employees-are-quitting-instead-of-giving-up-work-from-home .

On the plus side for flexible working most people surveyed have felt that flexible working was a positive change for them, saving time, money and reducing their carbon footprint.  Crucially staff working flexibly feel more in control of their lives – better able to balance time spent on exercise, with family, pets and even household tasks that otherwise had to be delayed or missed entirely.

Flexible working also offers the prospect of greater “levelling up” for regions and individuals disadvantaged by a concentration of wealth and opportunity for those willing and able to work in city centres in general and London and the South East specifically.

On the negative side there seems to be no real end to the working day.  All too often time saved from the commute is being diverted back into the working longer hours rather than improving work-life balance. Stress from work no longer has the logical “off switch” of heading out of the office and leaving work behind. As usual technology is stepping in to offer some solutions to turn off the work communication https://www.mirror.co.uk/money/apple-soon-mute-late-night-24272717) but this is simply a filter, not a solution.

The opinion on how much time should be spent in the office makes the divide resurface as well, with 68% of senior execs expressing their wish for staff being present at least 3 days per week to maintain company culture.

Overall it is likely that the divide will continue, but perhaps in different forms.  It may well be that those with skills which are in demand in the emerging new economy will best be able to dictate flexible working packages. It’s also true that new challenger businesses will typically have less of a focus on HQ real estate and fixed working hours.

Productivity

Perhaps the most debated item is whether office working is better for productivity.  Proponents highlight improved teamwork, ad-hoc meetings, chance encounters and “water cooler” moments as significant contributors to innovation and creativity.

Opponents cite the time and cost wasted on travelling, the cost of centralised premises and infrastructure plus the impact on work-life balance when more than ten hours each day is spend working and commuting.

Of course for some the journey to work is also a time to reflect and catch up in a way that going to a desk after breakfast rarely achieves.  The reality of returning to peak-time cramped commuting conditions, gridlocked roads and the frustrations of cancellations and delays make this an unlikely idyl for most.

From a pure productivity perspective, flexible working has potential benefits through more engaged and motivated employees, potentially generating 43% more revenue and delivering 20% more performance than disengaged colleagues – https://www.cipd.co.uk/Images/flexible-working-business-case_tcm18-52768.pdf

The majority of staff in surveys do report being at least as productive away from the office, with about a third reporting increases in effectiveness https://yougov.co.uk/topics/politics/articles-reports/2015/10/20/30-uk-office-workers-are-more-productive-when-work.   

Flatlining productivity is a major issue that has affected the UK since the global financial crisis of 2008, neatly summarised by Andy Haldane, Chief Economist at Bank of England and Chair of the Industrial Strategy Council in his foreword to “Can Good Work Solve the Productivity Puzzle –  https://www.carnegieuktrust.org.uk/publications/can-good-work-solve-the-productivity-puzzle/ – “working better should be our watchword, for therein lies the key to understanding and solving the UK’s productivity crisis”. 

Conclusion

It’s easy to say that the future of work is “hybrid” but that masks the complexity of what we need to consider.  There are good reasons to travel for work and to meet in person, but it’s also a fact that we need to simultaneously reduce our impact on the planet, improve staff engagement and well-being and increase overall productivity.  We will not achieve any of these things by returning to the conservative “status quo” of pre-pandemic 2019.

Hybrid working is likely to  combine HQs’, hub offices, flexible working hours, home working and (hopefully) a more nuanced approach to setting objectives and measuring productivity.  It’s crucial, however, that the organisation has real and up to date information on which to base planning and management activities.  This ranges from user experience, well-being and engagement data for workers to environmental impact assessments on premises, supply chain, IT and travel.

Px3’s recent analysis of ICT and staff travel has identified that some private, public and not-for-profit organisations are actively taking up the challenge.  By using technology to reduce energy consumption, extend device life and enable users to work flexibly and travel less the emissions savings can be considerable (typically up to 70%) and are helping organisations on the journey towards Net Zero.

As one of our customers recently fed back “We presented the Px3 findings at our last climate emergency meeting. It was the first time IT had such detailed information about our carbon footprint and a clear roadmap for the future.”

We need to celebrate this and build on these strategies and science-based metrics to properly identify where we are and where we can get to in order to meet our sustainability goals, our responsibility to the workforce and take advantage of the new opportunities that will arise.

(Photo by Tima Miroshnichenko from Pexels)

About the Author: Ewen Anderson BSc, MMS (Dip), CIO @ Px3

Ewen is CIO of Px3, a company on a mission to help organisations balance people, planet and productivity by promoting sustainable IT strategies.  Px3 has set itself the goal of removing the CO2 emissions equivalent of 100,000 cars from our atmosphere by 2050. With a background in psychology, management services, consultancy and enterprise IT, Ewen is a passionate believer that the right technology used in the right way can significantly reduce environmental impacts, engage users and improve productivity.

Ewen (LinkedIn Profile) can be contacted at ewen@px3.org.uk

An icon for our times? Why Professor Pat Pending is Px3’s All-Time Cartoon hero.

Taking a lighter note, we consider the remarkable talents of our favourite cartoon hero, Professor Pat Pending from Wacky Races – a true icon of what science and scientists can do for us in limiting the effects of climate change.

The three “P”s in Px3 officially stand for Planet, People and Productivity.  But is there something  else they might represent?  Perhaps there is one truly appropriate alternative – Px3’s very own hero – Professor Pat Pending.   For younger readers I should explain that Prof Pending was a racing-driver scientist who drove his Convert-a-Car in the 1960s comedy cartoon series “Wacky Races”, inspired by the 1965 comedy film The Great Race.

Pat Pending used his scientific prowess to create a boat shaped vehicle which could transform into a multitude of shapes and functions.  The more sensible of these were a vehicles such as a motorbike, tandem, hot air balloon and a jet car but also included were a flying carpet on wheels, a forklift, an arrow and a bowling ball.

Like many from the genre the cartoon now fails pretty much every diversity test, not least in having an all-white cast (with possible the exception of “Little Gruesome” who for some reason was purple) and just a single female character who was naturally obsessed with applying her make-up while driving. 

So why is Professor Pat Pending such a hero to us? 

http://www.freepik.com">Designed by brgfx / FreepikWell our 3 x ‘P’s has 3 ‘A’s we very much admire….

Appliance (of Science) – Firstly his achievements are an excellent example of applying science to overcome practical (if comic) problems.  As set out in his recent book https://time.com/5930098/bill-gates-climate-change/ Bill Gates stresses the need for investment in scientific innovation to help tackle climate change. While we need to approach scientific interventions to tackle climate change with care (see here for a cautionary view https://www.theguardian.com/books/2021/mar/06/it-is-the-question-of-the-century-will-tech-solve-the-climate-crisis-or-make-it-worse) there is undoubtedly a requirement and role for practical, innovative climate science in our near future.

Altruism – Secondly his amazing gadgets and inventions were often used not just to boost his own speed but also to help other drivers who had fallen victim to the machinations of series villain, Dick Dastardly.  If there’s one thing the covid-19 pandemic should be teaching us it’s that the issues we face are global and that none of us are safe until all of us are safe.  Here’s a retrospective on that topic from Fijian Prime Minister and COP23 President Frank Bainimarama: https://cop23.com.fj/we-must-do-everything-in-our-power-to-meet-the-challenge-posed-by-climate-change-cop-presidents-speech-for-20th-conference-of-commonwealth-education-ministers/

Attitude – Finally we admire his attitude and optimism.  There is no problem his ingenuity and inventiveness can’t overcome and no tricky situation he will shy away from.  Whether it’s rescuing Penelope Pitstop on his tandem or cueing boulders back through the caverns of Carlsbad, he’s up for the challenge.  In the coming years (and starting right now) we need to cultivate positive, targeted action plans to deliver on the promises and commitments already made but not delivered.  Attitude is a critical part of this, as discussed in another article: https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/blog/internal-attitudes-climate-change-matter.

In conclusion we’re certain the Professor would be a huge supporter of transparent reporting against science-based targets (https://www.wri.org/initiatives/science-based-targets) as a way to measure and accelerate our progress towards the winning line of the UN and IPCC goals.  And while we may not have quite his array of gadgets and gizmos, Px3 is proud to bring our own touch of science to the sustainability proceedings. 

For combining humour and technology for the good of others, we salute you Professor!

(For the record, Professor Pat Pending came first in three Wacky Races episodes; the ‘Mish-Mash Missouri Bash’, ‘Eeny, Miny Missouri Go!’ and, controversially given the topic, ‘Oils Well That Ends Well’!)

(Desert image designed by brgfx / Freepik)

About the Author: Ewen Anderson BSc, MMS (Dip), CIO @ Px3

Ewen is CIO of Px3, a company on a mission to help organisations balance people, planet and productivity by promoting sustainable IT strategies.  Px3 has set itself the goal of removing the CO2 emissions equivalent of 100,000 cars from our atmosphere by 2050. With a background in psychology, management services, consultancy and enterprise IT, Ewen is a passionate believer that the right technology used in the right way can significantly reduce environmental impacts, engage users and improve productivity.

Ewen (LinkedIn Profile) can be contacted at ewen@px3.org.uk